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A unified military organization among the Soviet-bloc countries, the Warsaw Pact, was formed in 1955; and West Germany was admitted into NATO that same year. This sparked the Cuban missile crisis (1962), a confrontation that brought the two superpowers to the brink of war before an agreement was reached to withdraw the missiles. Increasingly complex international relationships developed as a result, and smaller countries became more resistant to superpower cajoling. The Cold War began after the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945, when the uneasy alliance between the United States and Great Britain on the one hand and the Soviet Union on the other started to fall apart. Nelson, Rebecca, (2004). In the late 1950s, both the United States and the Soviet Union were developing intercontinental ballistic missiles. The blockade lasted for eleven months; the airlift lasted for four more months after the blockade was ended. A number of geopolitical factors that emerged in the wake of the Second World War, pitting Russia against the U.S. World War II ended with the Soviet Union and United States as allies that triumphed over Nazi Germany. The Cold War came to a close gradually. And who are the representatives of imperialism now? This hostility between the two superpowers was first given its name by George Orwell in an article published in 1945. Throughout the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union avoided direct military confrontation in Europe and engaged in actual combat operations only to keep allies from defecting to the other side or to overthrow them after they had done so. The United States defended democracy and capitalism, as well as the principles of private property and free initiative. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. The “Big Three” clashed during the Tehran Conference about Poland and other Eastern European countries that bordered with Germany. But how did two countries that used to fight on the same side end up a couple of years later as mortal enemies in a Cold War of distrust that prevailed for years to come? New York, NY: Time Books. IDEOLOGICAL CONFLICT (CAPITALISM VS. 245) The fall of Hitler and fascism were just the beginning in the triumph of Socialism, they were told Eastern Europe which had been rescued by the Red Army during the war was deemed a prize for socialism The nations of Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovakia were all under Soviet control at the close of WW II and soon after were made socialist. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The next few years were marked by an escalation of this mutual hostility and distrust. Space was an important arena for the Cold War and even led to the creation of NASA. (This currency reform was known as Wirtschaftswunder meaning the economic miracle.) Communist regimes began to collapse in eastern Europe, and democratic governments rose in East Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, followed by the reunification of West and East Germany under NATO auspices. Learn about the last successful escape from East Germany via the Baltic Sea. Barnes & Noble Inc. https://www.trumanlibrary.org/teacher/potsdam.htm, Preschool Horse Craft Ideas for the Classroom, Ideas for First Grade Literacy Stations & Tips on Keeping Things Running Smoothly. Hence, in 1947, the economic plan known as the Marshall Plan was created, which provided for the distribution of 12,871 million dollars, and its effects translated into a notable increase in industry an… The Americans and the British feared the permanent Soviet domination of eastern Europe and the threat of Soviet-influenced communist parties coming to power in the democracies of western Europe. At first the focus was humanitarian but, according to Semiriaga, the shift to a political agenda was quick. Remarks made by Stalin in Moscow February of 1946 had a tone of war that prompted what came to be known as the “long telegram”. Britain and America wanted these countries to be independent, not under communist rule. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Truman Doctrine, as it came to be known, stated that communist into other nations must and would be halted.The main causes of the cold war had revealed themselves quickly and would come to a head in 1948. The west did not give in. These causes are broadly divided into tw9 groups i. e orthodox and revisionist. Berlin, the capital, was separated this way as well. Learn about an unsuccessful escape attempt from East Germany during the Cold War. Still, after the crisis, the Soviets were determined not to be humiliated by their military inferiority again, and they began a buildup of conventional and strategic forces that the United States was forced to match for the next 25 years. In 1962 the Soviet Union began to secretly install missiles in Cuba to launch attacks on U.S. cities. © HistoryOnTheNet 2000-2019. But tensions emerged quickly and were exacerbated by economic and human losses. Cold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. Scott Michael Rank, Ph.D., is the editor of History on the Net and host of the History Unplugged podcast. The Americans and the British worried that Soviet domination in eastern Europe might be permanent. Here are some possible factors that contributed to the Cold War: This article is part of our larger collection of resources on the Cold War. The Cold War had solidified by 1947–48, when U.S. aid provided under the Marshall Plan to western Europe had brought those countries under American influence and the Soviets had installed openly communist regimes in eastern Europe. COMMUNISM) SPREAD OF COMMUNISM. The Soviet Union began to establish left-wing governments in the countries of eastern Europe, determined to safeguard against a possible renewed threat from Germany. Written by a Soviet expert at the US embassy in Moscow, the long telegram advised containment of Soviet power. The Cold War truly began to break down during the administration of Mikhail Gorbachev, who changed the more totalitarian aspects of the Soviet government and tried to democratize its political system. Anatoly Semeriaga was a Soviet officer in Berlin helping those liberated from concentration camps. Different Economies. The origins of the Cold War go back to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the rise of communism as an economic contrast to capitalism in the West.

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